BAC+1: the history program focuses on the 19th century

Useful for the Terminale (BAC+0) to understand the 20th century, which led to the situation in 1850 (date from which the 2013 competitive exams for Sciences Po Paris and Sciences Po Bordeaux start), useful for the BAC+1 for the history test at Sciences Po Bordeaux.
History of the 19th century: from 1815 to 1848

Congress of Vienna

→ Louis XVIII becomes king
→ Napoleon exiled to Elba in April 1814
→ 4 major victors: the United Kingdom, the Austrian Empire, Prussia, the Russian Empire
→ preservation of the political balance between the powers
→ restoration of the dynasties driven out by the revolutionary wave

New political map of Europe

Modification of the European political map:

→ geographical consequences of the Congress of Vienna

Prussia: expands with part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw,
Swedish Pomerania, half of Saxony, part of the Rhineland.
The Russian Empire: control of Finland confirmed, trusteeship over part of Poland, annexation of Bessarabia
The Austrian Empire: recovers the Tyrol, kingdom of Lombardy-Venice, and Dalmatia (southern advances)
England: annexation of islands in the North Sea, Malta and the Mediterranean

Sweden: annexation of Norway at the expense of Denmark
Denmark: gained duchies

France recovered more or less its 1792 borders
Two buffer states:
– in the North the Kingdom of the Netherlands (including Belgium)
– in the south the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
→ Prussia was then a major European power
→ Revenge of the Old Regime on the ideals of the French Revolution
→ Poland no longer exists: dissatisfaction of Polish nationalists.
→ Nationalist aspirations in Italy and Germany (despite the Germanic Confederation) not satisfied
→ Belgians and Norwegians subject to foreign powers.
→ In the Balkans, desire for independence against the Ottoman Empire of Christian peoples: Serbs Greeks Bulgarians and Romanians

Evolution and disputes between 1815 and 1948

→ 1st form of Serbian autonomy
→ 1821 Insurrection in Moldavia
→ Independence of Greece 1830

→ In Germany: 1817 student demonstrations
→ 1820 Sovereigns of Spain and Two Sicilies give a constitution to their people
→ Austrian troops in Germany and Italy
→ French troops in Spain

Demands of 1830

→ Belgians rise up against William I of the Netherlands
→ November: the Poles drive out the Tsar’s brother
→ Agitations in the states of Italy and Germany
→ Belgium gains its independence.
→ Agreement between Prussia, the Austrian Empire and the Russian Empire to destroy all liberal and national movements
→ Hence the brake on German and Italian liberals, and on Polish patriots
→ Austrian army enters Italy
→ Russian Empire’s army recovers Warsaw