“If Europe were to unite one day to share its common heritage, there would be no limit to happiness, prosperity and glory”
What remains of these hopes, formulated by Winston Churchill, half a century later?
This chronology of the construction of Europe, in addition to offering you an effective summary for revision, will allow you to take the measure of the European construction site which has been engaged until today.
The idea of a united Europe
1922: Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the movement for a United States of Europe or the pan-European movement
1929: Aristide Briand, President of the Council, advocates before the Assembly of the League of Nations a federal link between the European countries
1945: Europe is rebuilt after the Second World War
1946: Churchill spoke in Zurich of a United States of Europe:“We must build something like the United States of Europe. The first step is the formation of a European Council.
1948 (March): the Treaty of Brussels created the Western Union, which set up, among other things, a mutual defense (France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg)
1948 (April): the Marshall Plan led to the creation of the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) to distribute funds
1948 (May): The Hague Congress brings together nearly 750 delegates to implement a united Europe
1949 (April 4): the North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington, creating NATO (members of the Brussels Treaty, the United States, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Italy, Portugal[in 1952 Greece and Turkey])
1949 (May 5): the Council of Europe, resulting from the Treaty of London, facilitates cooperation between member countries
The first steps towards a united Europe: from the ECSC to the EEC
1950 (May 9): declaration by Robert Schuman in the Salon de l’Horloge of the Quai d’Orsay (“. The pooling of coal and steel production will immediately ensure the establishment of a common basis for economic development, the first stage of the European Federation”) according to a project by Jean Monnet
1951: creation of the ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community), resulting in the Treaty of Paris, which brings together France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg)
1952: the EDC (European Defense Community), which aims to establish a European military force, is ratified by the FRG and the Benelux countries
1954 (August 30): the EDC is rejected by the French National Assembly
1954 (October): the Treaty of Brussels integrates the FRG and Italy into the organization of the Western European Union
1957 (March 25): two treaties of Rome signed by France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries established the EEC (European Economic Community) and EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community). The EEC establishes a common market and the foundations of a common agricultural policy.
1960: Seven countries join the European Free Trade Association, initiated by the United Kingdom, to establish a free trade area (United Kingdom, Austria, Norway, Switzerland, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden)
1961: First presentation of the Fouchet Commission (second in January 1962) at the initiative of Charles de Gaulle
1962: establishment of the CAP, Common Agricultural Policy, resulting in the Treaty of Rome
1963 (January 14): de Gaulle rejected the entry of the United Kingdom into the common market of the Treaty of Rome
1963 (January 22): Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle signed the Elysee Treaty
1965 (April): signing of the treaty, merging the executives of the EEC, the ECSC and Euratom
1965 (June): policy of the empty chair by de Gaulle which blocks the European construction
1966 (January): the Luxembourg compromise unblocks the situation by defending the notion of “vital interest” of the member countries
1967: second veto by France against the entry of the United Kingdom into the EEC
1969: French veto lifted after the election of Georges Pompidou, allowing the entry of the United Kingdom into the EEC
1969 (December): The Hague summit brings together the Six of the EEC and relaunches European construction
1972 to 1978: European monetary snake, which limits exchange rate fluctuations
1973 (January): three countries join the EEC: the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark (Norway rejected the referendum)
1979: the European Monetary System comes into effect to stabilize the values of the currencies of European countries
1985 (June): signing of the Schengen agreements for free movement between member countries
1986 (January): Spain and Portugal join the EEC
1986 (February): the signature of the EUA (Single European Act), notably under the impetus of Jacques Delors, deepens the Treaty of Rome and prepares the single internal market
1989: the fall of the Berlin Wall
The European Union
1992 (February 7): signature by the members of the EEC of the Maastricht agreements, which establish the European Union, a common foreign and security policy, and provide a single currency.
1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden join the European Union
1997: signing of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which strengthens the union between the countries of the European Union, on the common foreign and security policy, as well as on a judicial collaboration
1999: the euro is used as the unit of account for European financial transactions
2001: the Treaty of Nice completes the European Union system, reshaping the Political and Security Committee and adapting the organization to the new members of the Union
2002 (January 1): the new euro currency is put into circulation
2004: a Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe is signed in Rome, ratified in several countries but rejected in France in 2005
2007 (January 1): Romania and Bulgaria join the European Union
2007 (December): the 27 countries of the European Union sign the Treaty of Lisbon following the rejection of the European Constitution. It comes into force in December 2009 and modifies the institutions of the European Union.
2012 (October 12): Nobel Peace Prize for the European Union
2013 (July 1): Croatia joins the European Union, which now includes 28 countries
2015–2016: Migration crisis in the European Union
2016 (June 23): Referendum in the United Kingdom on remaining in or leaving the European Union
The flag of the European Union
The 12 stars: the stars represent the member countries, 12 represents perfection, refers to the 12 hours, the 12 months, the 12 constellations, the 12 deities in ancient times; 12 is also a symbolic number in the Bible (12 apostles, 12 tribes of Israel, 12 stars of Mary)
The color blue: symbolizes the sky of the stars; blue can also be associated with the Virgin Mary.
→ 60 dates to know by the court about the World, Europe, and France since 1945
→ History from the 19th century to the present day