France’s diplomatic power in the world from 1958 to 2007 (correction)

The Academics in Politics present a correction for the following exam question: France’s diplomatic power in the world from 1958 to 2007.

The exam question was expected, and you should be very happy if you trusted the predictions of the Academics in Politics team.

Indeed, we indicated a typical question:“France and the construction of Europe between 1958 and 1974″, and gave the maximum probability respectively to: “The Fifth Republic, de Gaulle and Pompidou 1958 to 1974 “and” The
Fifth Republic since 1974

Definitions of terms: France’s diplomatic power in the world from 1958 to

2007 Power: the word power is often used in history subjects. It is important to see all the issues at stake. In this case, two definitions, one general, one more precise, could be identified.

First definition: In a general case, power is the faculty to produce an effect, and the force which results from it.

Second definition: From a political point of view, power concerns the sovereign State, considered from the point of view of its resources, its military and diplomatic potential.

Diplomacy: Science and practice of political relations between states, and particularly of the representation of a country’s interests abroad, in the form of the representation of a country’s interests abroad, in this case at the international level.

Boundaries: The diplomatic power of France
in the world from 1958 to 2007

framework is well delimited in the question.

1958 → constitution of the Fifth Republic in

2007 → end of Chirac’s term; Sarkozy elected president
Lisbon Treaty signed in December.

The geographical areas are also well delimited: France, in an international framework.

Context: the diplomatic power of France in the world from
1958 to 2007

the introduction, it was good to briefly mention the context of France in
France in 1958, and a little before. A focus on the Suez crisis in 1956, which clearly tested France’s diplomatic power, was a good diplomatic power, was an excellent introduction.

As a reminder, France came out of the conflict of the Second World War weakened, especially
conflict, especially politically. Although it had obtained a veto right at the United Nations thanks to the power of its empire, and the role it played in the League of Nations, France has considerably lost its diplomatic influence after 1945. It was notably discredited within its Empire, and it did not participate in the end did not participate in the Yalta and Potsdam conferences.

De Gaulle tried as best he could to rebuild the diplomatic power of France until 1958.

Exam question: France’s diplomatic power in the world from 1958 to 2007
1958 to 2007 Why

is this question being asked. What are the stakes underlying this subject, what is the real problem?

The real problem here is France’s attempt to make its voice heard when it has lost all the prestige it had from the 17th century onwards, and its place as the world’s leading power. Here is a question that pinpoints the problem.

How has France, from the policy of grandeur led by de Gaulle from 1958 to the attempts to gather in a European Union in 2007, tried to restore its diplomatic power against the influence of hegemonic tendencies of the new world powers?

Plan: France’s diplomatic power in the world from
1958 to 2007 The

terminals, 1958 to 2007, France in the world, lent themselves well to a three-part plan, capable of covering a long period of time and allowing them to address all the issues of the question. Your outline should look like this:

I. The politics of greatness (1958–1974)

II. France dependent on the bipolar world confrontation (1974–1991)

III. France in the face of globalization (1992–2007)

Development: France’s diplomatic power in the world from 1958 to 2007

. The policy of greatness (1958–1974)

The main idea is the
policy of independence that de Gaulle intended to pursue. The division of the subsections was more manageable. It was simply important to address all the stakes of the French diplomatic power.

From 1958 to 1962, it was the end of the French Empire. The Constitution of 1958 already gave the right to many African colonies to acquire independence. The Evian Treaty in 1962 put an end to the Algerian War, in which France’s role had been widely criticized abroad.

De Gaulle established diplomatic relations with Communist China on January 27, 1964, to show France’s independence from the United States, which did not recognize Communist China.

For a “Europe of Nations”, de Gaulle slowed down the construction of Europe, which tended towards a supranational Europe: empty chair policy in 1965, veto in 1963 and 1968 on the entry of the United Kingdom into the Common Market, accused of being a “Trojan horse” of the United States.

In the military field, France acquired its own nuclear weapon, always to be more independent: bomb A in 1960, bomb H in 1968.

Charles de Gaulle announced France’s withdrawal from the integrated command of NATO on February 21, 1966.

II. France dependent on the bipolar world confrontation

In 1973, the oil crisis showed that France was dependent on the world
economy. In 1979, this influence was confirmed by the second oil shock.
It is only from 1986 that the French economy

Georges Pompidou continued the work of General de Gaulle (nuclear weapons nuclear weapon, the balance of the Two Great) but he lifts the French veto concerning the entry of the United Kingdom in the EEC (1972 with.
Denmark and Ireland)

It is rather the USSR and the United States that occupy the international scene. During this period 1974–1991, France ceased to want to be a “super-giant”, and instead worked on the construction of the European Union.
In 1979, the first European elections were held. Single European Act in

III. France in the face of globalization (1992–2007)

On September 20, 1992, the referendum on Maastricht was held. On May 29, 2005, the “no” vote won a referendum on the European Constitution, while in December 2007 the Lisbon Treaty was signed.

In 1998, France won the World Cup, it lost it in 2006.

From 1995, the Juppé government under Jacques Chirac wants to reintegrate France into the NATO command. The Jospin government after 1997,
during the cohabitation, interrupted the negotiations.

The reintegration of France into the integrated command of NATO was the question of a declaration
Nicolas Sarkozy made a statement to Congress in Washington on November 7, 2007.

In 2003, France opposed the war in Iraq on February 14, 2003, in a speech by Dominique de Villepin.

France is finally seeking to renew more intimate relations with its former colonies, especially on the African continent.

Give your thoughts or outlines on this 2014 history question in the comments below.

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17 thoughts on “France’s diplomatic power in the world from 1958 to 2007 (correction)

  1. think that the most important thing for the 2007 terminal was, of course, to talk about the election of Sarkozy, but above all to address the refusal of the Lisbon Treaty by France, of which the Union.Eu has none. taken into account! Which proves a strong decline in French diplomacy just on a continental scale, so imagine on a global scale? This also refers to Sarkozy’s policy which was to align himself with the German model, the most powerful country on the continent. In other words, I hope that the common thread of this subject was to show how French diplomacy became glorious and powerful under the mandate of the General to then experience a very strong decline, which today places it in 2nd place. .

  2. It has not retreated, but its strength lies above all in its place within Europe. But it is true that it is, with Germany, at the heart of the construction of the Union. This is what I tried to show in my dissertation, that France retains diplomatic power but develops it in two different ways: through national independence with De Gaulle; then by its European position. On the other hand, I think that the period 1992 – 2007 which I did not know how to develop will make me lose a lot of points :/

  3. really like your opening Loic, I didn’t make one… (I don’t even know why ^^). Afterwards I see that many have made a chrono plan. Personally, I find that French diplomacy has not necessarily folded with the European Union, it has been rather at the heart of it, I find. Here it is 🙂

  4. The diplomatic power of France in the world from 1958 to 2007 If at the end of the Second World War, France found itself in an ambivalent position because it was simultaneously excluded from the group of Great Powers, it was nevertheless taken into account as a such in the geographical division of the conquered territories. The fact remains that the Fourth Republic in place since 1946 contributes to making French diplomacy incomprehensible. Indeed, faced with a rise in independence demands and international criticism from all sides. The return of General De Gaulle marks a high point in French diplomacy and confirms the fact that it includes what Jacques Chaban-Delmas calls the reserved domain of the President of the Republic. It therefore appears crucial to understand how during the Cold War, faced with the imperative of decolonization or else in the globalized era of the beginning of the 21st century, French diplomacy was able to weigh on the international scale. We will therefore ask ourselves how did France develop its diplomatic power from 1958 to 2007? Plan: I – 1958-1981: A strong, offensive diplomacy? A) 1958-1962: De Gaulle’s first mandate which sees the reconstruction of a place for France in international relations * solving the colonial problem > end of the Algerian war * establishment of the French Union in the image of the Commonwealth * Long live free Quebec > uninhibited speech, diplomacy is embodied * I understood you > a line with respect to foreign policy B) 1962-19694: France asserts itself as a country involved in international relations both at European and world level. * refusal of the entry of the UK into the EEC * The CAP which meets more the expectations of France than those of our partners: leadership * Recognition of China * Criticism of the American intervention in Vietnam C) 1969-1974: The Pompidou mandate, an opening of French diplomacy. * Taking a position in favor of the entry of the UK into the EEC * development of the Francophonie * principle of France Africa which is emerging. II- 1981 to 2007: a weakening, a decline in French diplomatic power? A) 1974-1981: A decline in French diplomacy in the world? * French diplomacy is subject to the international context and does not find a way to express itself in the face of leaders such as Thatcher (coming to power in 1979) or Reagan (1981) who advocates the exclusive interest of their country * the Francophonie knows unprecedented growth. (other examples not noted…) B) 1981-1995: A weakening of French diplomacy to the benefit of European diplomacy? * New links with the eastern bloc because the entry of communists into the government allows an easing of tensions. * the establishment of Schengen in 1985, the single European act in 1986 or the Erasmus system of 1987 contributes to conveying an image of France, a French position but by means of a word that is European C) 1995- 2007 : An inaudible French diplomacy? Conclusion: A French diplomacy that evolves in parallel with the international context. If we note a decline in diplomatic power since the 1980s, its reintegration into NATO’s integrated command in 2007, its role during the Arab Spring or even the intervention in Mali on behalf of the international community demonstrates that the power France’s diplomacy remains important. Opening: one can wonder if, in the manner of Reagan, there is not a Come Back on the diplomatic scene of France? What do you think ?

  5. Hello, For the catchphrase I mentioned the height of the Algerian crisis in 1958 which attested in particular to the failure of French diplomacy which failed to see the specificities of this conflict. And who therefore justified the return to power of De Gaulle. Then for the opening in the conclusion I spoke about the Ukrainian crisis (by saying that the limits of the French diplomatic power were noted with this recent crisis since, even if it does not concern only France but also the international community, the lack of firmness and means of pressure towards Moscow allowed Putin to arbitrarily annex Crimea without fear of sanction). Is this relevant in your opinion?

  6. Could you give me an opinion on my outline (I opted for a thematic outline and not a chronological one…), my problem was what international role did France play from 1958 to 2007? (not very much researched…) and no opening in conclusion due to lack of time: I/Political and military decisions A/International affirmation (NATO, refusal of Chirac…) B/Interventions (Gulf war, Yugoslavia , kosovo) II/France between decolonization and relations with the Third World A/Algerian war B/African decolonization C/Relations with the Third World (China, Middle East) III/France and European construction A /Franco-German axis B/European deepening

  7. Hello, when I left the test I thought I had done quite well, but I admit that the more I think about it, the more I doubt it. I would gladly listen to your comments, good or bad. Issue: What forms did France’s desire to impose its diplomatic power on a global level between 1958 and 2007 take? I/ A world rank ensured by national independence (De Gaulle years) A. End of the colonial empire = end of the French empire? loss of Algeria, independence with the Community, questioning of French influence at world level B. Openness to the world Good relations with black Africa stemming from the Community, recognition of Communist China, openness to the East, travel in the Third world C. National independence and politics of grandeur Empty chair, refusal of the UK in the EEC, refusal of supranationality, atomic force, contestation of American leadership (condemns the war in Vietnam, withdrawal from NATO) II/ A world rank ensured by the European and international institutions (1969-2007) A. 1969: end of the Gaullist policy May 68, election of Pompidou, continuities but greater openness to Europe B. France, European power Pompidou lifts the veto (GB entry into the EEC ), france-germany driving force of European construction, deepening (Schengen, Maastricht…), rise of Third World countries, France counts as a European power C. France in the institutions international Place at the Security Council of the UN, member of the coalition during the Gulf War, member of the G7 Conclusion: 2 different policies follow one another to ensure the French diplomatic power: independence carried by De Gaulle; then associations after (confirmed with return to NATO operated by Sarkozy)

  8. @M: Very good catchphrase. The boundaries are well defined. Indeed, more emphasis should perhaps have been placed on the notion of diplomacy, which was the key to this subject. Everything will depend on how the corrector interprets the assignment, because the knowledge is very comprehensive, that is a good point! @Ms.: Yes, it is a very good point to have highlighted Franco-German relations. @bairlais: Indeed, they opted for a transversal subject, which covered a vast area. Your question that pinpoints the problem is good, even if you do not recall the end of 2007 terminal, it insists on the problem of French diplomacy during this period. Your outline is like the one presented by the Integrated Sciences Po team, by “mixing” the IIs. and III. in a single II. The knowledge seems to be there. We wish you success, and to find a good proofreader! If you have comments, or constructive remarks for the outlines of others, do not hesitate: it will be useful for the person who proposed his plan, and for yourselves!

  9. Good evening, I think, without having done anything exceptional, I came out pretty well My plan: (don’t hesitate if you have any opinions/criticisms) > How France, weakened in 1958 by the desire to emancipation of the countries of the South[=Algeria Suez], has it been able to restore and preserve until our days an indisputable although limited diplomatic weight? I) A strong policy aimed at making France powerful during the Gaullist Republic (1958–1974) A) Policy of national independence/greatness (nuclear bombs) manifested by the distance with regard to the 2 blocks of GF (actions VS. USA hegemony) B) European construction allows increasing French weight (FR-GER axis refusal to enter UK unionist vision which allows defense of France interests e.g. by Luxembourg compromise) C) Regulation of decolonization issues (which degraded prestige) and maintenance of French interests (Françafrik with Eco/mil/cultural links) II) Voluntary policies which make it possible to retain significant French influence which is nevertheless limited (1974–2007) A) Further European integration in which France retains an important role (Valéry Giscard d’Estain, European Council rejects TCE) (BUT increase in German weight since reunification enlargement> decrease France’s influence on Europe) B) Maintaining links with countries from decolonization (Françafrik Francophonie) and of a certain national independence (ex: pro-Arab policy VS. USA) C) A power on a world scale (U.N. Villepin 03), which is disputed (BRICS question for example FR role in the council security=decline dependence USA)

  10. Good evening, I’m exactly in the same situation as you Lys, I was on point on the internal policy but not the external one… It was a big slap, except for the 1st part on the policy of size and independence of De Gaulle.

  11. have covered most of the points presented. I also highlighted Franco-German diplomacy. I am also quite surprised that this does not appear in your answer key. The tandem between Mitterrand and Helmut Khol seems to me decisive in this subject. The same for the 2 Gulf Wars! The exam question was interesting. Nevertheless, I am afraid that the errors of dates will harm me..

  12. Hello, could you give me your opinion on my plan? For the intro I started with a catchphrase from DG: France is not France without greatness – Setting: End of the second World War a France which is experiencing a significant setback on the international scene, which has chosen to Atlanticism in a context of cold war and division of the world between the 2 large ones. – 1958: Arrival of DG in power still in a context of cold war. He will give France back a place on the international scene according to his certain vision of France: a powerful and influential France in international relations that his successors will try to maintain, the most blatant symbol of which is its place in European construction. . – 1991: However, new geopolitical deal with the fall of the USSR. American hyperpower against which it finds it difficult to oppose, and context development new phenomena (globalization, new conflicts…) make France become a middle power. – 2007: (I justified this date by a worry of hindsight on the period 2007-now) and marks the election of Nicolas Sarkozy. We will wonder if France has managed to maintain its power in the world restored by DG in 1958 or if the new phenomena lead to its decline. (I’m afraid I’ve neglected the term diplomacy a bit in my pb…) In conclusion: I’ve taken stock, which can be summed up by the fact that France is a middle power with global ambitions. And my opening on the same subject concerning the United Kingdom to see how another former colonial power after the fall of its Empire (which made all its power) is doing diplomatically in the world since… And my outline is the following: I. 58-91: return to the international scene A. From decolonization to cooperation Context: Call from DG in a context of deadlock in the Algerian crisis. – DG puts an end to colonization: 1960 end of the French Community gives independence to the colonies of Africa / 1962 Evian Agreements – But want the FR to maintain its influence in the area: Bilateral treaties / CFA franc zone.. Then under VGE we speak of the policeman of Africa economic relations. Under Mitterrand: offers aid outlines in exchange for the promise of democratization. B. Policy of size: will emancipation vis-a-vis the EU Reminder: Choice of Atlanticism between 45-58 because of difficulties in particular economic. – DG of critical watch vis-à-vis the US in Quebec in 1961 or about Vietnam or Israel. – Military emancipation: Leaves NATO in 1966 and develops nuclear weapons. – Develops bilateral ties to escape logical blocks: 1964 recognizes PRC, 1966 travels USSR. – Franco-German links eg: Treaty of Elysée 1963 C. Choice of Europe Reminder: Empire once symbol of its power, no longer exists. We have to find another way. – Under DG even if there is fear of a decline/stagnation in European construction economic integration progresses 1964 CAP/Common Market // France imposes its choices: DG hostile to supranationality, defender of State sovereignty refuses 1965 merger of the 3 communities and obtains win. vetoed RU entry ‘US Trojan Horse’ 2 times. – Under Pompidou: progress in European construction, symbolized by the 3 axes mentioned at the Hague Congress in 1969. complete, deepen, broaden. FR participates in numerous enlargements like RU/Denmark/Irlade in 1972. – Under VGE active European policy: SME, European Council. – Mitterrand: Maastricht 1992>EU> Choice of Europe as a new framework for exercising undeniable power. II. 91-07: France becomes a medium diplomatic power. A. American Hyperpower Context: Fall of the USSR gives way to the only universalist EU in a new world order. – EU will multilateral world management according to G.Bush but Huntington denounces global unilateralism = rather selfish attitude of the EU which defends its interests first and against the opinion of all including France: ex: Iraq 2003 – But many concessions because new global disorder: Accepts Dayton 1995 Agreements even if France was an ally of Serbia// Cooperation against international terrorism// Need for NATO return cooperation. B. Weaknesses of France – Of the European Union: failure of the CFSP because of Yugoslavia (GER: unilaterally recognizes independence Croatia / Slovenia while France is in favor of maintaining the unity of Yugoslavia) // Failed ratification 2004 Constitutional Treaty. – France in the G7/G8 wants to promote human values as it does with its NGOs but it was criticized in 1994 for its wait-and-see position in Rwanda 1994. C. France’s place in globalization – 1% world population / 2 .5% speak FR / 4% world GNP / Unemployment rate 10.7% high for OECD countries… = medium power – Largest EEZ in the world, nuclear power, permanent CS member of the UN (which is not the Germany or Japan) 1 st tourist country / Luxury sector… = always undeniable assets.

  13. spoke for Mitterrand about the refusal to give in to American pressure to stop sourcing Russian gas communist ministers in power = distrust of the USA But hot all the same

  14. I expected anything but that personally. It was a real disaster, apart from the De Gaulle years I knew almost nothing in detail! (Concerning France, it was mainly domestic politics that I had learned)

  15. was convinced that the question would relate to the Fifth Republic, I don’t know why but I saw myself writing de Gaulle’s name in my copy… Afterwards the question itself was not particularly expected, not by me in any case. And in addition I found it very difficult to find a plan. For Mitterrand, I spoke briefly about his speech on Israel in the Knesset, and the story of the Pershing rockets, I don’t know if it was appropriate or not. Anyway I think for many this question was quite complicated.

  16. There are many points that I have not mentioned, especially for Pompidou. The exam question was expected → WTF?

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