A. The concept of juridical fact
A juridical fact is an event, whether voluntary or not, that is capable of producing juridical effects that have not been sought by the subjects of law.
A juridical fact leads to the creation of rights (such as birth, marriage, or death), the extinction of rights (such as prescription by the passage of time), or the obligation to repair a damage (such as interest paid).
B. Two categories of legal facts
1. Facts of nature
These are facts caused by natural events (natural disasters), or biological events (birth, illness, death, etc.), or the passage of time (prescription).
2. The facts of man
Man has willed the fact, but he has not willed the consequences of this fact.
The fact can be wrongful, and in this case it is an illicit fact, whether it is intentional or not.
The act may not be wrongful. Thus, a person is
responsible for a thing or for the act of another person even if he is not the author of the
the author of the fault: “one is responsible not only for the damage that one causes by one’s
caused by one’s own act, but also for the damage caused by the act of the
persons for whom one is responsible” according to article 1384 of the civil code.