Tensions and conflicts in the Middle and Near East during the Cold War (1948 – 1989)

We present the correction of a history essay on: Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989).

→ Understanding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: explanations and chronology

Introduction – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989)

Topic Terms – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989)

Tension: Situation of precarious balance, of disagreement in relations between people, between groups of people, between communities, leading to risks of conflict, crisis, rupture

Conflict: Armed struggle, war

Delimitations – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and the Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989)

Geographical delimitations

They were easily identifiable, given by the question: Middle and Near East, thus a rather broad geographical field.

Historical delimitations

They were also given by the question, but it is a question of refining them to understand why these boundaries were chosen in particular:

1948: on May 14, the State of Israel was proclaimed, and the first Arab-Israeli war began the next day. Truman Doctrine in 1947, then Berlin Blockade in 1948.

1989: fall of the Berlin Wall, end of the war in Afghanistan, and after the end of the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988).

Issue – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989).

The aim was to find a question that pinpoints the problem understanding the evolution between the Zionism of the aftermath of the Second World War and the numerous conflicts that resulted from it, and which in 1989 have still not found an answer.

But above all, it was necessary to take into account the specificity of the question by showing the exploitation of these tensions or the role of these tensions and conflicts in the Cold War, in what way they were able to influence the Cold War or vice versa, in what way the Cold War was able to influence these tensions/conflicts.

Development – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989).

We propose a chrono-thematic approach, with an outline in 2 parts. This choice is debatable, and we invite you to propose your ideas and plans in comments.

Through each point developed below, you should highlight the issues of identity, energy and democracy in relation to the Cold War. These issues should be evident at every stage of the analysis.

I. The Arab-Israeli question is part of the warlike logic of the Cold War (1948–1967)

A. The taking of independence in the Middle East – a Cold War issues

  • David Ben Gurion, chairman of the executive of the Jewish Agency, proclaims the State of Israel on May 14, 1948. → Consequences for the United Kingdom, which had a mandate, and for the UN
  • 1st Arab-Israeli war (650,000 Israelis)
  • Bandung Conference in 1955, which shows the independence policy of the Middle East, and in particular of Egypt, whose role is affirmed by the Belgrade Conference in 1961.

B. From the Suez Crisis to the Six-Day War

  • Suez crisis that began on October 29, 1956, → Consequences for the USSR, the United States, France, the United Kingdom
  • Break-up of the United Arab Republic, birth of the PLO, BAAS party.
  • Six-Day War (June 5–11, 1967) and UN resolution (November 22, 1967)

II. The dashed hopes for peace during the Cold War in the Near and Middle East (1967–1989)

A. Tensions in the Near and Middle East are beyond the control of the Cold War powers

  • Syrian and Egyptian attack on Israel on 6 October 1973: Yom Kippur War. → Consequences for the world, particularly because of the 1973 oil shock caused by OPEC
  • Camp David Accords on September 17, 1979: Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty. → Attempts to establish peace by Cold War powers.
  • Israel wants to protect itself by arrogating to itself a 10 km strip on the border with Lebanon from 1978. Operation “Peace for Galilee” in Lebanon on June 6, 1982, ends in failure for Israel

B. Revolutions in the Middle East setback the USSR and the United States at the end of the Cold War.

  • In 1979, Islamic revolution in Iran; the same year Khomeini (spiritual guide of the Islamic revolution) returns to Iran after 15 years of exile and proclaims the Islamic Republic of Iran. → Consequences for the troubled United States
  • Saddam Hussein, fearing Khomeini attacks Iran on September 22, 1980. Iran-Iraq war for 8 years until 1988 → Consequences for the United States
  • First Intifada that begins on December 7, 1987.
  • Afghan War 1979–1989 → Withdrawal of USSR Forces

You could open this history essay by showing the beginnings of 1990, the year in which Iraq invaded Kuwait. This attack seems to be part of the continuity of the Cold War, especially with the intervention of the United States the following year.

We hope that you will have succeeded, and we invite you again to post in the comments of this article your outlines, your ideas, and your impressions on this subject.

→ Why the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?

17 thoughts on “Tensions and conflicts in the Middle and Near East during the Cold War (1948 – 1989)

  1. @Lisa: Hello Lisa, there will be no answer key on the Spanish topic. We hope that you did well in this subject, and that you will have good results. Do not hesitate to communicate them to us, Have a nice day, The Academics in Politics team.

  2. Hello, For my part, I considered the expression during the Cold War as a time marker, and if I of course insisted in my duty on the link between tensions at the PMO and the Cold War, I did not. example not made my pb… If the proofreaders were expecting a subject based solely on gf/PMO, wouldn’t we have had to deal with a subject like Tensions and cold war at the PMO? Ma PB: How do the tensions in this region have a global resonance? → theater of decolonization which gives way to the influence of the two blocks region= ethnic religious linguistic mosaic and strategic space an upheaval: the creation of Israel end European influence to make way for the 2 large → at the heart of the GF Influence of two big, cutting of the region pb palestinian end gf and new world order: importance pmo does not decrease: oil shocks, rise of radical islamism/ global consequences I wanted to give another vision of the analysis of this subject… But I may be next (?)

  3. Are we going to be able to have a Spanish corrected or not finally? Otherwise too bad, I know if I should continue to watch her;)

  4. Hello Would you be able to communicate a corrected English subject? THANKS !! Sincerely ED

  5. In my opinion Charlotte, it was important to talk about it, maybe not to make it the major axis of the duty, but it’s a personal opinion;)

  6. Is it wrong to have explained the context after the First World War and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire which is the major source of all these tensions? I treated the best according to the cold war but this period did not seem to me particularly relevant to speak about the PO/MO, which I specified in the conclusion (that they had influenced each other but were not the major source of the conflicts. It would rather be the two failures of European mandates and a badly done redistricting of territories).

  7. Good morning! For my part, I tried an outline at the po sciences as you say, I hope not to have made too simplistic a plan: I/ Conflicts and tensions because of foreign powers (I did not formulate it like that but at the moment I can’t find anything better turned ^^) 1) Conflicts and tensions linked to territorial division a) first Arab Israeli war b) the Kurdish question c) Cyprus (tensions between Turkey and Greece) J I also talked about the Sykes-Picots agreements 2) C/Ts linked to foreign interference a) the suez crisis b) the islamic revolution in iran c) the creation of opec II / A fierce competition for control regional (in short, all the conflicts not having directly involved Westerners or the USSR) 1) open wars a) Iran-Iraq b) 6-day war c) Yom Kippur war 2) civil conflicts (I had hard to really define this last sub-part for lack of time) a) civil war in lebanon b) israeli colonization in palestine intifada opening: the end of the cold war does not mark the end of the conflicts in the middle east → 1st golf war 90-91. What do you think? In addition, I made 3 date errors (for the Sykes-Picots agreement, the creation of OPEC and the Yom Kippur war) ranging from 2 to 6 years apart.. do you think this will be severely punished? ?

  8. Hello, is this outline suitable? I) the establishment of the bipolar logic in the middle east 1948-56 a) proclamation of israel: common position of the two great but divergent interests b) nasser and the suez crisis: plays on the USA/USSR divergences, the crisis from the suez the definitive withdrawal of European influences c) peaceful coexistence > extra-European spaces become important issues: pactomania, etc. II) the Middle East theater of war a) the Arab-Israeli wars: indirect confrontations between the 2 big ones, structures regional antagonism between peoples, undermine détente b) tensions between peoples influenced by the cold war: Camp David agreements and distance between the USSR and Egypt, the shah’s regime, support of the Russian plo c) the Afghan conflict: armed intervention of the USSR, usa support of the rebels, upsets the logic of the cold war III) the cold war becomes a less important logic in the conflicts in the Middle East, but failure of emancipation of the Cold War region a) nonalignment: distancing from the big 2, desire to weld the region together, a failure? b) new logic: Iran/Iraq, Lebanon, Hamas/Hezbollah c) Afghan epilogue of the cold war, proof of the influence of the cold war in the MO: contributed to the fall of the eastern bloc

  9. @sassia: Hello, following a miscommunication of the question regarding the “Cold War” aspect, we have rectified it. Thank you very much for your feedback! We have also incorporated your comments and improvements into the fixes.

  10. Hello, I would first like to point out that the question of history treated here is not complete: it was about tensions and conflicts in the Near and Middle East DURING THE COLD WAR (1948-1989) This does not suppose not to make the link between the Cold War and the tensions in the MO? Then do you have any opinions on my work? pb: How did the intervention of the Big 2 in the Near and Middle East during the Cold War accentuate the tensions and conflicts already present? I- MO BECOMES AN ISSUE OF THE COLD WAR. THE REGION IS JUST MORE DSTABILIZED (1948-end 50’s) a) formation of alliances – USA: Quincy, Baghdad Pact, Israel Eisenhower doctrine (containment) – USSR: South Yemen, Nasser b) The intervention of the Big Two destabilizes the region – Operation AJAX – Strengthening of Israel thanks to the USA – Suez: USA and USSR are now masters of the region to the detriment of European powers. II- THE MO IS ONLY A PURE OBJECT OF COLD WAR RELATIONS (late 50’s-1973) a) It struggles to assert itself in the bipolar conflict – failure of pan-Arabism to ease tensions – division of the countries of the MO by alliance systems – OPEC: success: overcome their differences b) However, the MO remains the site of confrontations between the Big 2, which accentuates tensions – War in North Yemen: fruit of the Cold War illustrates the impossible agreement sustainability of the countries of the region – The Arab-Israeli wars (Six-Days and Yom Kippur) aggravated by the support of the 2 big ones for each of the camps TENSIONS a) The affirmation of the MO in the face of the hegemony of the Big 2 – 1973: oil shock – Iranian revolution: destabilizes the region: Iran/Iraq war 2nd oil shock – Lebanon war: seems to escape the bipolar logic – Intifada: idem b) The retreat of the USA – Iranian revolution: the Great Satan and Israel the little satan. – Iran-Iraq War: USA content themselves with securing the oil convoys – USA sponsors Israeli-Palestinian peace which had been eluded by the bipolar logic: Camp David – However, Afghanistan becomes from 1979 a new battleground for the 2 Great , which prolongs the war and destabilizes the region

  11. I have dealt with all the elements proposed in your answer key, however I note that it lacks the specification of the Bandung conference in 1955, which according to plays a leading role in the pro-independence voluntarism of the Middle East (in the case of especially Egypt). It was also necessary, I think, to address the Belgrade conference which announced the birth of the non-aligned movement. I felt it necessary to recall this fact.

  12. Same question as Valerie! For me, the question of the cold war had to enter the pbmtq, otherwise why choose these terminals??

  13. Here is my outline for the story:) Hook: telephone diplomacy (Kissiger – 1973) pbk: How was the Near and Middle East a hotbed of tension and conflict during the Cold War? How were the two powers trying to extend their influence in the region? I – The creation of Israel upsets the geopolitics of the region (1948-1956) A- The triumph of Zionist ideas UK mandate of the League of Nations – UN partition outline Tensions because the National Jewish Fund buys up too much land for the Palestinians Israel’s proclamation B- As soon as Israel’s proclamation, the Jewish state is attacked Short topos on the War of Independence and the disorganization of the armies of the Arab nations C- The Suez crisis Idea that the two powers agree in full GF II – The MO is a key region for the two hyperpowers during the GF (1956 – 1973) A – Pactomania Pact of Baghdad Equivalent for the USSR (I had forgotten the name 🙂 ) B- Israeli-Arab conflicts are a projection of the GF to the MO -War of 67: the two Great ones arm the armies. USA → Israel USSR → Arab armies – Yom Kippur War: OPEC increases oil prices by 4 to weaken Israel’s allies (= the USA) – The arrival of new actors = tensions Palestinian terrorism Munich attack – hijacking of 3 civilian planes in the West Bank… NASSER: attempt at non-alignment → participation in the Belgrade conference in 1961 (even if very close to the USSR) III – a multiplication of conflicts (1973-1989) A- The revolution Iran: a hard blow for the USA Brief overview of the Revolution… Loss of an ally B- Other conflicts Hussein who takes advantage of the situation in Iran to invade the country Invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR (1980 -1988) (I just said that for the invasion because I forgot the course of the conflict :’) ) So, thank you very much for your opinion! 🙂

  14. is not having mentioned the Iraq-Iran and Afghanistan wars a major oversight?

  15. Given that the title of the question was tensions and conflicts in the Near and Middle East DURING THE COLD WAR (1948-1989), are we off question if we have dealt with the way in which the tensions and conflicts in the region stigmatize those of the Cold War ?

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