We present the correction of a history essay on: Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989).
→ Understanding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: explanations and chronology
Introduction – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989)
Topic Terms – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989)
Tension: Situation of precarious balance, of disagreement in relations between people, between groups of people, between communities, leading to risks of conflict, crisis, rupture
Conflict: Armed struggle, war
Delimitations – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle East and the Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989)
They were easily identifiable, given by the question: Middle and Near East, thus a rather broad geographical field.
They were also given by the question, but it is a question of refining them to understand why these boundaries were chosen in particular:
1948: on May 14, the State of Israel was proclaimed, and the first Arab-Israeli war began the next day. Truman Doctrine in 1947, then Berlin Blockade in 1948.
1989: fall of the Berlin Wall, end of the war in Afghanistan, and after the end of the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988).
Issue – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989).
The aim was to find a question that pinpoints the problem understanding the evolution between the Zionism of the aftermath of the Second World War and the numerous conflicts that resulted from it, and which in 1989 have still not found an answer.
But above all, it was necessary to take into account the specificity of the question by showing the exploitation of these tensions or the role of these tensions and conflicts in the Cold War, in what way they were able to influence the Cold War or vice versa, in what way the Cold War was able to influence these tensions/conflicts.
Development – Tensions and conflicts in the Middle and Near East during the Cold War (1948–1989).
We propose a chrono-thematic approach, with an outline in 2 parts. This choice is debatable, and we invite you to propose your ideas and plans in comments.
Through each point developed below, you should highlight the issues of identity, energy and democracy in relation to the Cold War. These issues should be evident at every stage of the analysis.
I. The Arab-Israeli question is part of the warlike logic of the Cold War (1948–1967)
A. The taking of independence in the Middle East – a Cold War issues
- David Ben Gurion, chairman of the executive of the Jewish Agency, proclaims the State of Israel on May 14, 1948. → Consequences for the United Kingdom, which had a mandate, and for the UN
- 1st Arab-Israeli war (650,000 Israelis)
- Bandung Conference in 1955, which shows the independence policy of the Middle East, and in particular of Egypt, whose role is affirmed by the Belgrade Conference in 1961.
B. From the Suez Crisis to the Six-Day War
- Suez crisis that began on October 29, 1956, → Consequences for the USSR, the United States, France, the United Kingdom
- Break-up of the United Arab Republic, birth of the PLO, BAAS party.
- Six-Day War (June 5–11, 1967) and UN resolution (November 22, 1967)
II. The dashed hopes for peace during the Cold War in the Near and Middle East (1967–1989)
A. Tensions in the Near and Middle East are beyond the control of the Cold War powers
- Syrian and Egyptian attack on Israel on 6 October 1973: Yom Kippur War. → Consequences for the world, particularly because of the 1973 oil shock caused by OPEC
- Camp David Accords on September 17, 1979: Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty. → Attempts to establish peace by Cold War powers.
- Israel wants to protect itself by arrogating to itself a 10 km strip on the border with Lebanon from 1978. Operation “Peace for Galilee” in Lebanon on June 6, 1982, ends in failure for Israel
B. Revolutions in the Middle East setback the USSR and the United States at the end of the Cold War.
- In 1979, Islamic revolution in Iran; the same year Khomeini (spiritual guide of the Islamic revolution) returns to Iran after 15 years of exile and proclaims the Islamic Republic of Iran. → Consequences for the troubled United States
- Saddam Hussein, fearing Khomeini attacks Iran on September 22, 1980. Iran-Iraq war for 8 years until 1988 → Consequences for the United States
- First Intifada that begins on December 7, 1987.
- Afghan War 1979–1989 → Withdrawal of USSR Forces
You could open this history essay by showing the beginnings of 1990, the year in which Iraq invaded Kuwait. This attack seems to be part of the continuity of the Cold War, especially with the intervention of the United States the following year.
We hope that you will have succeeded, and we invite you again to post in the comments of this article your outlines, your ideas, and your impressions on this subject.
→ Why the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?