Short biography of Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)
Friedrich Nietzsche was born in Röcken, near Leipzig in Saxony, into a family of pastors. He attended high school in Pforta, then studied Greek philosophy in the city of Bonn. There he also worked on philology (study of ancient texts) and became a professor. He read Schopenhauer and became friends with Richard Wagner. While the Franco-German he became a nurse. However, his health deteriorated, however, deteriorates. In 1873 and 1874 he publishes the inactuals I, II, and III. Four years later, in 1878 and 1879, he wrote his famous work Human, Too Human after a break with Wagner. He then retires to the University of Basel, and travels throughout Europe despite his health and financial problems. In 1882, he wrote four volumes of The Gay Science, and three years later composed two volumes of. Thus spoke Zarathustra. In 1887, he continued writing The Gay Knowledge and published The Genealogy of Morals. He died in the summer of 1900 in Weimar.
Justice According to Friedrich Nietzsche
It would be possible to discern two types of justice in the work of Friedrich Nietzsche’s work, to better understand his thought. A moral justice that he criticizes, and an extra-moral justice, corresponding to “a great justice”, that he supports. This first justice is the most often evoked:
“They have now quite monopolized virtue, these weak, these incurable patients, no doubt about it: “We alone are the good ones, the just once, they say, we alone, we are the nominees bone voluntatis” The Genealogy of Morals 1887. The second form of justice is not less present:
“To the taste of great responsibilities, to the majesty of the dominating look, to the power to abstract from the crowd, from its tasks and its virtues, to the benevolence that takes sides with what is ignored and slandered, whether it is God or the devil, to the god or the devil, to the joy of practicing justice on a grand scale scope.” Justice could have an inferior meaning, and a superior meaning that goes beyond good and beyond good and evil. Friedrich Nietzsche desires a reversal of values, that is to say a transformation.
Origin of justice according to Friedrich Nietzsche:
In Human, too human, in 1878, Friedrich Nietzsche defines for him the origin of justice:
‘Justice (equity) originates between men enjoying an equal power, as Thucydides saw it well.’ He explains that when there is a risk of conflict, harmful for the two parties, then “is born the idea to agree and to negotiate on the claims of each party: the character of barter is the initial character of justice”. (Human, Too Human, 1878)
Friedrich Nietzsche’s Critique of Justice
Justice is a selfish feeling: it comes from the will to power, to preserve oneself: ‘Justice naturally comes down to the point of view of an instinct of conservation, of course, that is to say to the egoism of this reflection: “What good would it do me to harm myself unnecessarily and perhaps miss nevertheless miss my goal? – So much for the origin of justice” (Humain, too human, 1878) He continues his reflection by assimilating the virtue of justice to an animal virtue: it comes from instinct. ‘The beginnings of justice as those of intelligence, of measure, of valor – in short, of all that we designate what we designate by the term of Socratic virtues, are animal’ Aurore, 1881. The word justice is misleading. Justice is in fact only a hidden vengeance and a desire of power hidden under the nobility of the word justice. This criticism is clearest in The Genealogy of Morals (1887) but he already makes Zarathustra say: “I tear your veil so that your rage may bring you out of your hole of lies and that behind you behind your word ‘justice’ your vengeance will emerge (Thus Spoke Zarathustra, 1883–1885) See also:
A good article on justice and Friedrich Nietzsche is Arnaud François to learn more.