– Not a new phenomenon even if strong public opinion mobilization suggests otherwise
– Europe is during the cold war could give the false impression of a stability of the populations
– man evolves according to the evolution of climate, environment, etc.
– shipwrecks in the Mediterranean, global trend of closing borders, Calais camps = migration phenomenon – current issue.
– France 2017 ambassador for migrations to work with countries of departure + transit of migrants.
– migratio in Latin = passage from one place to another; im- inward and ex- outward = emigrant: leaving land of origin and immigrant: entering territory not native
– foreigner: a person with a nationality other than that of the country where he or she resides. Immigrant: person residing for at least 1 year + foreign born abroad, may have acquired nationality of another country by naturalization or marriage = has civil rights of a native. Refugee status: granted by a State that commits itself to receive a refugee because of the persecution he/she has suffered in his/her country of origin (thanks to the 1951 Geneva Convention). Asylum seeker: person who applies for refugee status, transitional status
– OECD estimates 232 million migrants living abroad in 2013, i.e. 3.2% of the world population. Volume of migrants tripled in 30 years.
– Since 2000
– 20 million people live in camps, temporary places because of conflicts Middle East + Africa + Haiti after earthquake + Fukushima
– camps identified by international authorities or UNHCR = Grande Synthe camp near Dunkerque > unclogging Calais, Calais Jungle, Roma camps around Paris
– some camps welcome workers in slavery situation, e.g. China because of lack of manpower = keep away from society, employers confiscate passports….
– retention camps in France = retain foreigners removal from French territory, controversial places because of children + Lampedusa retention center closed for non-respect of human rights