Brief history of reforms and awareness to fight against social exclusion in France, then where we are today in terms of social exclusion, and finally 4 quotations to feed the reflection on social exclusion.
History of social exclusion in France
1893: Law on free medical assistance
1904: Law on assistance to abandoned children
1905: Law on assistance to the infirm and incurable elderly
1945: Creation of the Social Security
1950: Creation of the minimum wage
1954: Appeal by Abbé Pierre
1956: Creation of the minimum old age pension
1967: Creation of the ANPE
1970: The minimum wage is replaced by the minimum wage, indexed to inflation and growth
1975: Law on aid to the disabled
Social exclusion in France today
A telling statistic about social exclusion is the number of homeless people. He 2012 Insee survey counted 133,000 homeless people in France, 10% of whom were homeless.
Sociological research, because of the plurality of causes that lead to the exclusion, has identified risk factors for social exclusion in general.
The main risk factors are
- Emotional abandonment
- Childhood abuse
- Rupture with his family
- Professional failure (no job, unemployment) or school failure
Reflections and quotes on social exclusion
According to Alain Touraine, we should no longer think of the social divide in a vertical way: “those at the top and those at the bottom” (the very rich and the very poor), but in a horizontal way: “those inside and those outside”.
“And in the heart of our so civilized home, behind the Place des Arts, there is a human being who sleeps outside at 25° below zero.” Monique Proulx, Les Aurores montréalaises, 1998.
“Our country must embark on the fight against social exclusion, by multiplying the number of jobs.” – François Bayrou at the Meeting in Caen on March 1, 2007
“No civilization has lasted when it accepted the social fracture of the excluded.” Jacques Chirac at the France 2 Newspapers on September 5, 1995