Correction Globalization and contestations

In a previous article, we suggested some mock exam on globalization. We have identified three that are particularly close and that would have been very useful for you: Should globalization be slowed down? Can we escape globalization? And Is there an alternative to globalization?

It was indeed a classic “pros and cons” topic. What is this process of globalization, and can it be or should it be questioned?

Insofar as the questioning was quite expected, we can consider that it was a relatively feasible subject, in any case a subject without pitfalls.

Introduction – Globalization and contestation

Introduction – Globalization and contestation

Current events are full of examples and quotations to make a good introduction to the assignment. In the case of the Sciences Po 2015, we could for example think of the recent victory of the Indignados in Spain: en Espagne, les “indignés” aux portes de Madrid et Barcelone (article Libération, May 25, 2015).

The definition of terms – Globalization and contestation

Globalization: see the definitions of Globalization, of which one could retain the rather broad meaning of the French Academy in the 9th edition of its dictionary: “generalization of international relations in the political, economic and cultural fields“.

This step is quite important because it is a question of delimiting the contours of the fields addressed. For example, you could have limited Globalization to its purely economic aspect. In this case, the question would have been quite technical considering the degree of knowledge that would have been necessary to mobilize, that is why it was a good idea to open as much as possible the concept of globalization, which would be delimited later in the development.

Contestations: a general definition of contestation is “action of not admitting something, of questioning”. We could see two scopes to the word contestations: contestations within globalization, and contestations of globalization itself, i.e. alternatives to globalization.

Problematic – Globalization and Contestations

As the question was a classic one, there were many ways to make a functional question that pinpoints the problem for this topic. You could, for example, play on the double scope identified in the definition of contestations, or you could ask yourself whether globalization is “thwartable”, i.e. whether it is a process that is implacable and whose existence can only be observed, or whether it is a product of our society, and in this sense whether it can be replaced.

How can the contestations of globalization blossoms while escaping the internalization within this globalization of the challenges they carry?

Plan – Globalization and contestations

Beware the trap with this type of subject, which links two terms, would be to give an outline of the type I. Globalization II. Contestations. This is what you should not do.

For the rest, several approaches were possible. We propose one to you to discover below in the development, which could have structured your essay very well.

Development – Globalization and contestation

We have chosen a two-part plan, but it was also possible to make a three-part plan.

I. Globalization, an unstoppable phenomenon?

A. Globalization is above all an uncontrolled historical process

Major idea: A natural process announced by Aristotle, globalization is not new: “ Before, the events that took place in the world were not related to each other. Since then, they are all dependent on each other, Polybius, 2nd century BC. See the phases of globalization.

To qualify: See the places where there has been no globalization, those that have resisted it. Globalization is an unfinished phenomenon.

B. States and humanity are now caught up in the cycle of globalization

Major idea: Take stock of the geography of globalization today, particularly as a result of commercial logic. But not only economic, also globalization of humanity. ”For we are living in the midst of what I would call the Globalization of Humanity” Arnold van Gennep, 1933.

To qualify: the development of protectionism

II. Regulating and finding alternatives to globalization

A. Regionalization and the return of nations

Major idea: the opposite phenomenon of globalization, regionalization. “ It is not globalization that dissolves nations, but the self-dissolution of nations that produces globalization,” explains Emmanuel Todd in L’illusion économique, 1997.

To qualify: isn’t regionalization itself a product of globalization? Are nations not built as a reaction against globalization?

B. Loss of power and deglobalization

Major idea: We must ask the question of the political aspect of globalization, which goes beyond the simple economic dimension. “ The supposedly happy globalization leads to the opposite of a world society; it transforms the world into an arena where atomized societies will confront each other in a war that will probably not remain merely commercial” warns Dominique Méda in qu’est-ce que la richesse? It is that political power seems to be disappearing, as Luc Ferry analyzes: “ Worse than an occult power, we discover with globalization a pure absence of power.”

To qualify: Politics seems to want to keep some control and to be able to hold this objective. This quest for political control against globalization is reflected in the de-globalization movement desired by some. About this economic deglobalization first, Walden Bello explains that “it is a question of reorienting the economies, from the priority of production for export, to that of production for local markets”.

Give your ideas, outlines, and feedback on this question in comments too!

→ Correction of the question does the family have a future?

General Knowledge: globalization


6 thoughts on “Correction Globalization and contestations

  1. Jeanne: we agree that for primario there was an error.. so I didn’t put anything personal!

  2. Hello, for the question globalization and disputes, what do you think of: Intro: catches up with Immanuel Kant on the unsociable sociability of Man, which led him to unify (from the family, to the city, to globalization). Brief historical explanation of the phenomenon of globalization. Pb: How does globalization, which tends to create an interdependent world unity, lead to numerous disputes? (or in this spirit at least…) I) The system of interdependence criticized (exp of the subprime crisis, the potential impact of American tuition fees, the rise of technologies -→ criticism of luxleaks and wikileaks. impact on the environment, Kyoto agreements still not ratified by the USA) II) Challenge of a globalization that creates inequalities (hegemony of certain superpowers in the face of the misery of other countries, role of new actors such as firms with relocations, etc. , new division of labour: perceived by some as a consequence of unemployment in developed countries now turned towards the tertiary sector and non-respect of human rights in other countries certain countries still landlocked and on the margins of globalization. of the embargo on Cuba Exp of the banana war from 93 to 2005 -→ alterglobalism and Stiglitz) III) A uniform global village which forgets the particularisms (dispute of a mass culture, globish etc -→ id ed of a cultural standardization? Actually more complex, see Multiculturalism by C. Taylor. cultural exception, with the exp of France. Rise of nationalisms, FN, UKIP, even if failure…) That’s basically my outline In any case, thank you for this site, which has been a great help to me. I would surely have been much more lost, alone, in my preparation for the competition!

  3. No opinion on my plan? (the first to be published!) 🙂

  4. Hello, can you put the correction of the Italian subject? There was an error in the exercise on the synonyms, on primario.. thank you:)

  5. Good morning ! Here is my plan, can you tell me what you think? 🙂 Thanks in advance 🙂 Hook on the anti-TAFTA demonstrations in Rennes I defined globalization as the process of spreading capitalism on a global scale and a process of interconnecting the world. In what way is globalization a source of disputes? Are these legit? I – Globalization is a phenomenon of interconnection of the world and interdependence of economies, which is a source of dispute. A – Anti-globalization or the contestation of the world. liberal – Some figures on inequalities – I spoke about the interdependence of eco with the 2008 crisis (evoking the reform of 3D) -Relocations – TAFTA…. B- The idea of supranationality and interconnection of the world source of loss of sovereignty and loss of identity -I have spoken of the FN and parties of the UKip type – RODRIK’s triangle – Cultural standardization -Criticized Supranationality… II- Legitimate disputes? A – The world. is she a scapegoat? Allows to hide shortcomings at the level of the States I took the example of Bangladesh where a textile factory collapsed. LA DIT was much criticized at that time. But it was the country’s building standards that were too lax. I also took the example of negative externalities on the environment with still the standards of certain countries being too lax. B – Liberal approach: mondi. = that’s 500,000 people lifted out of extreme poverty in India over the past 20 years. The BRICS: example of China since the establishment of SEZs in 1979. For KANT = mondia. = no war because interdependence of eco… Here it is 🙂

  6. Interesting! Even if I didn’t choose exactly the same approach. I rather treated the question as follows: in the first part I explained that globalization was an old fact which seemed rooted in culture or human nature (in particular this desire to unite, to go towards the other, to regroup…) and which, until the end of the 20th century, had never been disputed… (why criticize its own nature..?) In a second part I therefore deduced that the arrival of new aspects of globalization transcending this fundamental nature of man were at the origin of the birth of the anti and alterglobalist movements. What do you think of this approach? Is she wise?

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