In a previous article, we suggested some mock exam on globalization. We have identified three that are particularly close and that would have been very useful for you: Should globalization be slowed down? Can we escape globalization? And Is there an alternative to globalization?
It was indeed a classic “pros and cons” topic. What is this process of globalization, and can it be or should it be questioned?
Insofar as the questioning was quite expected, we can consider that it was a relatively feasible subject, in any case a subject without pitfalls.
Introduction – Globalization and contestation
Introduction – Globalization and contestation
Current events are full of examples and quotations to make a good introduction to the assignment. In the case of the Sciences Po 2015, we could for example think of the recent victory of the Indignados in Spain: en Espagne, les “indignés” aux portes de Madrid et Barcelone (article Libération, May 25, 2015).
The definition of terms – Globalization and contestation
Globalization: see the definitions of Globalization, of which one could retain the rather broad meaning of the French Academy in the 9th edition of its dictionary: “generalization of international relations in the political, economic and cultural fields“.
This step is quite important because it is a question of delimiting the contours of the fields addressed. For example, you could have limited Globalization to its purely economic aspect. In this case, the question would have been quite technical considering the degree of knowledge that would have been necessary to mobilize, that is why it was a good idea to open as much as possible the concept of globalization, which would be delimited later in the development.
Contestations: a general definition of contestation is “action of not admitting something, of questioning”. We could see two scopes to the word contestations: contestations within globalization, and contestations of globalization itself, i.e. alternatives to globalization.
Problematic – Globalization and Contestations
As the question was a classic one, there were many ways to make a functional question that pinpoints the problem for this topic. You could, for example, play on the double scope identified in the definition of contestations, or you could ask yourself whether globalization is “thwartable”, i.e. whether it is a process that is implacable and whose existence can only be observed, or whether it is a product of our society, and in this sense whether it can be replaced.
How can the contestations of globalization blossoms while escaping the internalization within this globalization of the challenges they carry?
Plan – Globalization and contestations
Beware the trap with this type of subject, which links two terms, would be to give an outline of the type I. Globalization II. Contestations. This is what you should not do.
For the rest, several approaches were possible. We propose one to you to discover below in the development, which could have structured your essay very well.
Development – Globalization and contestation
We have chosen a two-part plan, but it was also possible to make a three-part plan.
I. Globalization, an unstoppable phenomenon?
A. Globalization is above all an uncontrolled historical process
Major idea: A natural process announced by Aristotle, globalization is not new: “ Before, the events that took place in the world were not related to each other. Since then, they are all dependent on each other, Polybius, 2nd century BC. See the phases of globalization.
To qualify: See the places where there has been no globalization, those that have resisted it. Globalization is an unfinished phenomenon.
B. States and humanity are now caught up in the cycle of globalization
Major idea: Take stock of the geography of globalization today, particularly as a result of commercial logic. But not only economic, also globalization of humanity. ”For we are living in the midst of what I would call the Globalization of Humanity” Arnold van Gennep, 1933.
To qualify: the development of protectionism
II. Regulating and finding alternatives to globalization
A. Regionalization and the return of nations
Major idea: the opposite phenomenon of globalization, regionalization. “ It is not globalization that dissolves nations, but the self-dissolution of nations that produces globalization,” explains Emmanuel Todd in L’illusion économique, 1997.
To qualify: isn’t regionalization itself a product of globalization? Are nations not built as a reaction against globalization?
B. Loss of power and deglobalization
Major idea: We must ask the question of the political aspect of globalization, which goes beyond the simple economic dimension. “ The supposedly happy globalization leads to the opposite of a world society; it transforms the world into an arena where atomized societies will confront each other in a war that will probably not remain merely commercial” warns Dominique Méda in qu’est-ce que la richesse? It is that political power seems to be disappearing, as Luc Ferry analyzes: “ Worse than an occult power, we discover with globalization a pure absence of power.”
To qualify: Politics seems to want to keep some control and to be able to hold this objective. This quest for political control against globalization is reflected in the de-globalization movement desired by some. About this economic deglobalization first, Walden Bello explains that “it is a question of reorienting the economies, from the priority of production for export, to that of production for local markets”.
Give your ideas, outlines, and feedback on this question in comments too!
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