This fact sheet will provide you with some insights into Science, whether it is what Science is, what are the milestones of Science, or some statistics about Science.
Definitions of Science
- All knowledge acquired through study or practice
- Form of knowledge based on logic, experimental method and the search for theoretical explanations to phenomena.
To simplify, in its first sense: science = knowledge, in all subjects. In its second sense: science = knowledge by means of logical arguments, of scientific subjects: math, physics, chemistry, etc.
History of Science:
– 460 → -377: Hippocrates writes the medical oath
Fourth century BC – Herodotus develops historical science
-240 – Eratosthenes calculates the circumference of the Earth
-212 – Death of Archimedes
13th century AD – First universities
1437 – Gutenberg invents the printing press
1543 – Nicolas Copernicus: the Sun is the center of the celestial orbs
1609 – Johannes Kepler: Astronomia Nova, states the first two laws of planetary motion
1633 – Galileo trial
1637 – René Descartes: the 3 essays of the Discourse of the Method
1642 – Blaise Pascal: calculating machine
1662 – Robert Boyle: law of perfect gases
1672 – Isaac Newton: parabolic mirror telescope
1687 – Isaac Newton: Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
1714 – Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit: mercury thermometer
1751 → 1772 – Jean Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert and Denis Diderot : the Encyclopedia
1781 – First artificial insemination on a bitch by Abbé Spallanzani
1813-1878 – Claude Bernard develops experimental laboratory medicine
1826 – Birth of linguistics
1839 – Auguste Comte – launches the concept of sociology
1859 – Charles Darwin: Origin of species
1885 – Louis Pasteur: rabies vaccine
1895 – Emile Durkheim – publishes The Rules of Sociological Method
1896 – Sigmund Freud and Breuer – publication of Studies on Hysteria – Sigmund Freud develops psychoanalysis
1915 – Albert Einstein: General Relativity
1945 – Atomic bomb
1947 – George Gamow: Big Bang Theory
1953 – Watson and Crick: discovery of DNA
1978 – First test tube baby: Louise Brown
1997 – Cloning of Dolly the sheep
2001 – The map of the human genome is completed, making it possible to detect hereditary diseases from the embryo
2022, the budget of the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation was billion euros (in a post-COVID recovery context).
This budget is the fourth largest of the French government (behind the National Education, the Armed Forces, and the Ecological Transition).
According to a UNESCO report, there were 8,854 million researchers in the world in 2018. A third of them live in East Asia or South-East Asia (37.6%). They are a quarter living in Europe (23.5%), and a fifth in North America (18. 1%).
→ Tocqueville – Analysis of the link between democracy and the study of science