Correction: European governance since the Maastricht Treaty

The 2019 subject of the baccalaureate section S was the following: European governance since the Maastricht Treaty.

Or see

→ Correction: China and the world since 1949

Topic title and milestones – European governance since the Maastricht Treaty

Lower historical boundaries: In 1992 the treaty was signed in Maastricht in the Netherlands.

Upper historical boundaries: You could go up to the last European elections in May 2019, while being careful not to comment too much on current events, but to take a historical perspective.

Space Boundary: This was perhaps the trickiest part of this exam question. Should we limit ourselves to the European Union? Rather no, it was better to take the European continent in general, since the question speaks of “European governance”, and not of the governance of the European Union.

Our outline will naturally be based on these boundaries.

Introduction – European governance since the Maastricht Treaty

“And from the union of freedoms in the brotherhood of peoples will be born the sympathy of souls, the seed of that immense future where universal life will begin for the human race and which will be called the peace of Europe Victor Hugo, Choses vie, 1887

or again

‘Never has a greater, more beautiful, or more useful project occupied the human mind than that of a perpetual and universal peace between the peoples of Europe, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Project of Perpetual Peace, 1761

Plan and development – European governance since the Maastricht Treaty

We have chosen a two-part outline to deal with this topic, but with three subparts each.

I. Making Europe a governed continent

A. The attempt to reunify the European continent

1. The hopes of European governance for peace

2. The opening towards the East

B. An enlarged Europe

1. The Europe of 15 in 1995

2. From 2004 to 2013, the former socialist countries

C. The limits of the enlargement of European governance

1. The difficulties linked to the number of members in the construction of Europe

2. The geographical borders of Europe

II. The European project

A. The European Union: the beginnings of political construction

1. The Maastricht Treaty

2. Reticence about the “creation” of the European Union

B. The European Union with 28 members

1. The treaties of Amsterdam and Nice

2. The failure of a European constitution and the treaty of Lisbon

C. A still weak voice internationally and within Europe

1. Divisions within the European Union

2. Differentiated European policies and Brexit

3. European citizenship is still unknown and weak