Bac history in ES and L 2013: two corrected documents. Here is the correction for document n°2, a statement by Prime Minister Jacques Chirac.
Document n’°2 : Statement by Jacques Chirac
Document n°2 : General policy statement by Prime Minister Jacques
Chirac before the National Assembly, April 9, 1986.
The RPR, Gaullist party, won the legislative elections of 1986.
Jacques Chirac, a member of the RPR, was then appointed Prime Minister by
president François Mitterrand.
” For decades – some would even say centuries – the
for decades – some would even say centuries – the French temptation par excellence has been that of State dirigisme. Whether it be
whether it be the economy or education, culture or research, new
culture or research, new technologies or environmental protection,
it is always to the State that the citizen has turned to ask for ideas and
and subsidies (1). Little by little, an administered, and even collectivized, society has been built
administered, and even collectivized (2), where power was concentrated in the hands of
in the hands of experts trained in the management of large organizations. This
system of government, which is at the same time a social model, is not without
it flatters our national taste for equality; it ensures
and stability to the social body; it is perfectly compatible with the need for security
with the need for security that is embodied in the welfare state. But it has
but it has two crippling defects (3): it destroys itself,
by obesity (4); and above all, it threatens to undermine individual
individual freedoms. The French have understood the dangers of state dirigisme
and do not want it anymore. By one of those paradoxes of which history has the secret,
it is precisely at the moment when socialization seemed to triumph that the need for
that the need for personal autonomy, nourished by the rise of the level of culture and
and education, expresses itself with the most force. This is the source of the tensions
the tensions that have plagued our society for years:
increased collectivization (2) of daily life but, conversely
search for a new balance between the demands of justice for all and the
and the aspiration to more freedom for each individual
Source: Serge Bernstein, Le gaullisme, documentation photographique n°8050,
(1) Subsidy: financial aid
(2) Collectivized, collectivization: references to the Soviet model,
used as an argument in the political debate
(3) Redhibitory: unacceptable
(4) Idea that dirigisme would increase the weight of the state and make it less
Correction of document n°2 Statement by Jacques Chirac
On March 16, 1986, the legislative elections took place: proportional
proportional ballot, departmental elections.
The RPR and the UDF won 286 of the 577 seats.
It was a new situation: a first cohabitation
is born at this moment, also called coexistence.
Jacques Chirac responded to the President of the Republic in this speech.
Here is what the site
of the national assembly:
“President François Mitterrand then calls Jacques Chirac to form
a government. While the latter comes to ask for the confidence of the
deputies, the debate starts between the President of the Republic and the
The Prime Minister in order to define the distribution of competences between the Head of State
The Head of State and the Head of Government in a political situation
Jacques Chirac’s inaugural address to the National Assembly
is a response to the message of the President of the Republic. Entering
cohabitation, he drew up an assessment of the previous governments and pointed to the
the “movement of hope” that France was experiencing.
Faced with a politically weakened President of the Republic, the new
Prime Minister wanted to bring people together: “We are not talking to this or that
we are not talking to this or that fraction of the people, but to the entire people of France,” he declared before
he declared before the parliamentarians.
The opposition, through the voice of the speakers of the Socialist and Front
National-RN groups, set the date for future confrontations between the two heads of
heads of the executive
→ All the answers to the history exam
– geography 2013