III. 1. New relations after the First World War and the Russian Revolution

III. From one war to another (1914-1939)

1. World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the upheaval of Europe

→ The First World War

Première Guerre mondiale
World War I

The characteristics of World War I
– world war (interlocking alliances, from Europe to the world)
– total war (mobilizes all human and economic means, and all societies)
– brutalization (through new techniques, trench system, moral brutalization process)

The stages of the 1st World War
– the first offensives (first attacks, stalemate), 1915-1916
– conflicts on the periphery (in the Middle East, in the colonies)
– towards victory (military concerns, year 1917, United States, political crisis, social crisis, victory)

→ Europe’s upheavals with the Russian Revolution

Assessment of the war:
– human toll (demographics, veterans)
– economy (quantifying the damage, finances)
– moral (decadence of society, commemorate, pacifism vs. brutalization)

The transformed Europe :
– treaties (treaty of Versailles, other treaties, diplomacy)
– new European map (fate of Germany, reshuffling, criticism of the division)

World upheavals :
– decline of Europe (the loss of prestige of Europe, new powers)
– russia (Russian revolutions, consequences of revolutions, Europe transformed after the revolutions)

Révolution russe de 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917

→ New relations

The new diplomacy:

Réunion à la société des nations
Meeting at the Society of Nations in 1928

– the spirit of Geneva (League of Nations, pacifism, war and alliances)
– The isolationist temptation of the United States (ruptures and continuities after the First World War, foreign policy)

The issues at stake in the aftermath of the war :
– the question of reparations (Versailles, occupation of the Ruhr)
– franco-German rapprochement (Briand-Stresemann couple, normalization of relations)
– sensitive issues (inter-allied debts, territorial disagreements, concerns about the USSR)

→ The world from the 19th century to the present day

3 thoughts on “III. 1. New relations after the First World War and the Russian Revolution

  1. Hello, just to point out a typing error on the word war: → The upheavals of Europe with the Russian Revolution Bilan de la gerre …

  2. Hello, I am a student at Saint-Paul college in Saint-Etienne and I would like to use one of your photos. Is it possible ?

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