III. B. Emergence of Third World countries

→ A third bloc is trying to form in the face of the developed countries

Political Domain:

—the UN serves as a forum
—Bandung conference from April 18 to 24, 1955 (29 Asian and African countries)
—the principle of “nonalignment” (meeting in Belgrade in 1961 for the first time)
—regional organizations (Arab League in 1945, Organization of African Unity in 1963, Association of Southeast Asian Nations in 1967, “Group of 77” at the UN)

Economic field:
—agricultural and industrial strategies
—low economic growth
—creation of OPEC in 1960 (13 countries in 1973 which control 90% of world exports)

Commercial domain:
—poor countries ask for help from the North
—uN organizations such as the FAO, WHO or UNESCO
—UN conferences on trade and development in 1964, 1968 and 1976

→ The failures of the Third World

Economic development in a bad way:
—debts of Third World countries and difficulties in repayment
—competition from producers
—structural adjustment programs proposed by the IMF in exchange for loan rescheduling
—emerging market crisis in July 1997
—the problem of growing demography
—ecological dangers (deforestation, urbanization, pollution)

Divisions of the Third World countries:
—oil-producing countries are getting richer and widening the gap
—emergence of the 4 dragons: South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong
—small Latin American countries and sub-Saharan Africa are still lagging behind
—attempt to revive the non-aligned movement (Non-Aligned Summit in 1992 in Jakarta)

Fears of war in the Third World:
—armed conflicts of the East/West confrontation in Third World countries (Korean War, Vietnam, Southern Africa, Horn of Africa)
—interventions of the great powers
—rivalries between ethnic communities within countries
—Rivalries between Third World countries (Somalia wants Ogaden, Libya wants northern Chad, Eritrea/Ethiopia, Demo. Rep. of Congo)
—affirmation of certain regional powers (Syria, Iran, Iraq, South Africa, Libya, Cuba, Brazil, Vietnam) which are in conflict with the other powers
—growth of armaments (10% of GNP in Third World countries is devoted to the military, compared to 5% in developed countries)

→ 20 contemporary history cards (1945–2017)