Nationalities and nationalisms in Europe before 1914

II. Nations and States (from the middle of the 19th century to 1914)

1. Nationalities and nationalism in Europe before 1914

→ The exaltation of nationalism
—the new European map (territories resulting from the Congress of Vienna,
Italian unity, German unity)
—popular contestation (governments, role of the press, the nation, Renan’s
nationalism of Renan, nationalism of Fichte)
—Franco-German war (Bismarck’s policy, three emperors, Congress of of Berlin), creation of the Triple Alliance
→ Between two centuries
—Bismarck resigns (economic problems, political problems)
—France allies itself with Russia (Weltpolitik of William II, Franco-Russian
franco-Russian alliance)
—the Triple Entente (the end of the Italian colonial expansion, Franco-English
Franco-British agreement and the Fachoda crisis)
→ Nationalisms towards war
—crises in Morocco (Tangier crisis, Agadir crisis)
—the Balkan powder keg (Bosnian crisis, the disintegration of the Ottoman
ottoman Empire, wars in the Balkans, Sarajevo)
—Europe plunged into war (arms race, assassination of
François-Ferdinand in 1914, the spiral of alliances)

Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck

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