BAC+1: the history program focuses on the 19th century

History of the 19th century: from 1815 to 1848

Congress of Vienna

→ Louis XVIII becomes king
→ Napoleon exiled to Elba in April 1814
→ 4 major victors: the United Kingdom, the Austrian Empire, Prussia, the Russian Empire
→ preservation of the political balance between the powers
→ restoration of the dynasties driven out by the revolutionary wave.

A new political map of Europe

Modification of the European political map:

→ geographical consequences of the Congress of Vienna

Prussia: expands with part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw,
Swedish Pomerania, half of Saxony, part of the Rhineland.
The Russian Empire: control of Finland confirmed, trusteeship over part of Poland, annexation of Bessarabia
The Austrian Empire: recovers the Tyrol, kingdom of Lombardy-Venice, and Dalmatia (southern advances)
England: annexation of islands in the North Sea, Malta and the Mediterranean

Sweden: annexation of Norway at the expense of Denmark
Denmark: gained duchies

France recovered more or less its 1792 borders
Two buffer states:
-in the North of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (including Belgium)
-in the south the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
→ Prussia was then a major European power
→ Revenge of the Old Regime on the ideals of the French Revolution
→ Poland no longer exists: dissatisfaction of Polish nationalists.
→ Nationalist aspirations in Italy and Germany (despite the Germanic Confederation) not satisfied
→ Belgians and Norwegians subject to foreign powers.
→ In the Balkans, desire for independence against the Ottoman Empire of Christian peoples: Serbs Greek Bulgarians and Romanians

Evolution and disputes between 1815 and 1948

→ 1st form of Serbian autonomy
→ 1821 Insurrection in Moldavia
→ Independence of Greece 1830

→ In Germany: 1817 student demonstrations
→ 1820 Sovereigns of Spain and Two Sicilies give a constitution to their people
→ Austrian troops in Germany and Italy
→ French troops in Spain

Demands of 1830

→ Belgians rise up against William I of the Netherlands
→ November: the Poles drive out the tsar’s brother
→ Agitations in the states of Italy and Germany
→ Belgium gains its independence.
→ Agreement between Prussia, the Austrian Empire and the Russian Empire to destroy all liberal and national movements
→ Hence the brake on German and Italian liberals, and on Polish patriots
→ Austrian army enters Italy
→ Russian Empire’s army recovers Warsaw