→ The end of the Stalinist era
Recovery of the USSR from 1945 to 1953:
– IV Five-Year Plan (collectivization campaign, controlled kolkhozes and sovkhozes) 1946-1950
– Fifth Five-Year Plan (grandiose, unrealistic works, “the worst of all and of a lamentable conception” according to Khrushchev) 1951-1955
– death of Stalin in 1953
Return to dictatorship :
– persecution of all minorities (especially Jews and the army)
– intellectual dictatorship of Zhdanov: the Zhdanovchina
– stalinism glorifies the person of Stalin without taking into account the party
– Khrushchev puts an end to Stalinist arbitrariness
– XXth Congress of the Communist Party in 1956 (international détente, VIth five-year plan, disavowal of Stalin)
– Khrushchev wishes to tighten the links in the communist world, and in particular with Tito (Yugoslavia)
– The XXIInd Congress continues the de-Stalinization and makes public the rupture between the USSR and China
– the Czechoslovak crisis of 1968 makes intervene the troops of the pact of Warsaw which fear the spring of Prague
→ The pacifist will
Balance of terror:
– after the 1953-1956 thaw, nuclear weapons prompt forced coexistence
– after the success of sputnik, Khrushchev met with Kennedy in 1961 to demand that West Berlin become free and neutralized
– Kennedy did not give in, the GDR built a wall during the night of 12 to 13 August 1961, putting an end to the exodus of East Berliners to the West
The Cuban crisis in October 1962:
– american embargo on trade with Cuba
– american landing in the Bay of Pigs which failed
– the Americans discover Soviet launching pads and cargo ships on their way to Cuba
– kennedy’s speech on October 22, threatening a strict retaliation
– on October 28, the Soviets turned back
– “red telephone” between Washington and Moscow – link by teletype – in June 1963
– Nuclear armistice treaties including the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in 1968 (refused by France and China)
– Leonid Brezhnev seeks to consolidate the USSR through good relations with the USA.
– Ostpolitik of the West German Willy Brandt: policy of openness to the East
– the SALT (strategic arms limitation talks) of 1969 aim at arms control
5 thoughts on “II. B. Further stabilization of international relations”
In reality the balance of terror designates the Cuban crisis… I think there is a mistake, and that instead of balance of terror, we should write peaceful coexistence, hence the title ( pacifist desires). I also think that they put the Cuban crisis in this part because it initiates the period of detente…
I don’t understand the title of the second part either.
I think they want to highlight the peaceful coexistence wanted by Khrushchev, the establishment of a direct link despite the crises of the time, the period is marked by relaxation at the international level. This rapprochement of the USSR with the Western bloc will moreover be strongly criticized by the People’s Republic of China led by Mao, who will decide to deviate definitively from the Soviet model.
Hello, Could you enlighten me on the following fact: the persecution […] of the army in the USSR? thanks in advance
I don’t understand the title of the 2nd part, why did you put pacifist wills for the balance of terror and the crisis in Cuba??
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