→ Challenges to the colonial system
—Europe lost its capital of fear among its domination because of the 2nd GM.
—Karl Marxist ideology encourages anti-colonialism
—the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 sets an example
—the Jdanov doctrine and the communist parties of Europe in general call for subversion in the colonized countries
—America is anti-colonial: the Atlantic Charter proclaims “The right of each people to choose the form of government under which it should live,” taking up the 14 points of Wilson (1918)
—the United Nations is active for the disappearance of colonialism
→ First emancipation in Asia and Africa
-in India (divided between two currents: Gandhi and Nehru), the “Quit India” resolution of 1942 demands the departure of the British
—Nguyên Ai Quôc (future Hô Chi Minh) created the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930. In 1945, the Japanese pushed back the French. After Japan’s surrender, Ho Chi Minh set up a provisional government of Vietminh.
—The Communist and NPI parties – Indonesian National Party (led by Soekarno) – , exalt Indonesian nationalism.
—the British installedIndirect Rule (local chiefs had authority) in Africa, fostering nationalism
—fewer demands in the French colonies of black Africa
-in North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria in particular), demands were activated: religious reformers and secularists clashed.
→ First independence
-in India, Lord Mountbatten had his project accepted: the bill of independence separated the Indian Republic from Pakistan in July 1947, a prelude to the act of independence on July 18
—the independence of the Burmese Union was achieved on January 4, 1948, one year after the signing of an agreement in London in January 1947
-In Indonesia, Soekarno proclaimed independence on August 17, 1945, following the Japanese surrender. In 1947 the Dutch troops returned to Java and Sumatra. Disapproved by the United States, the Netherlands recognized the “United States of Indonesia” in 1949.
-In Indochina, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed in 1945. The return of the French provoked the Indochina War (see box below)
→ Focus on the Indochina War.
In 1946 France returns to Vietnam, provoking the Indochina War from 1946 to 1954. Bao Dai gained independence for Vietnam in 1948, in fact, still under French control. Chinese aid to Ho Chi Minh defeated the French forces aided by the United States. The Geneva Accords signed by Pierre Mendès France in 1954 marked the end of the conflict and the division of Vietnam into two states: the communist North and the pro-American South, with Laos and Cambodia gaining their independence. A struggle for influence between communists and pro-Americans prepared a second Indochina war.
→ 20 contemporary history worksheets (1945–2017)