III. A. The causes and first signs of decolonization

→ Challenges to the colonial system

—Europe lost its capital of fear among its domination because of the 2nd GM.
—Karl Marxist ideology encourages anti-colonialism
—the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 sets an example
—the Jdanov doctrine and the communist parties of Europe in general call for subversion in the colonized countries
—America is anti-colonial: the Atlantic Charter proclaims “The right of each people to choose the form of government under which it should live,” taking up the 14 points of Wilson (1918)
—the United Nations is active for the disappearance of colonialism

→ First emancipation in Asia and Africa

In Asia:
-in India (divided between two currents: Gandhi and Nehru), the “Quit India” resolution of 1942 demands the departure of the British
—Nguyên Ai Quôc (future Hô Chi Minh) created the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930. In 1945, the Japanese pushed back the French. After Japan’s surrender, Ho Chi Minh set up a provisional government of Vietminh.
—The Communist and NPI parties – Indonesian National Party (led by Soekarno) – , exalt Indonesian nationalism.

In Africa:
—the British installedIndirect Rule (local chiefs had authority) in Africa, fostering nationalism
—fewer demands in the French colonies of black Africa
-in North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria in particular), demands were activated: religious reformers and secularists clashed.

→ First independence

In Asia:
-in India, Lord Mountbatten had his project accepted: the bill of independence separated the Indian Republic from Pakistan in July 1947, a prelude to the act of independence on July 18
—the independence of the Burmese Union was achieved on January 4, 1948, one year after the signing of an agreement in London in January 1947
-In Indonesia, Soekarno proclaimed independence on August 17, 1945, following the Japanese surrender. In 1947 the Dutch troops returned to Java and Sumatra. Disapproved by the United States, the Netherlands recognized the “United States of Indonesia” in 1949.
-In Indochina, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed in 1945. The return of the French provoked the Indochina War (see box below)

→ Focus on the Indochina War.

In 1946 France returns to Vietnam, provoking the Indochina War from 1946 to 1954. Bao Dai gained independence for Vietnam in 1948, in fact, still under French control. Chinese aid to Ho Chi Minh defeated the French forces aided by the United States. The Geneva Accords signed by Pierre Mendès France in 1954 marked the end of the conflict and the division of Vietnam into two states: the communist North and the pro-American South, with Laos and Cambodia gaining their independence. A struggle for influence between communists and pro-Americans prepared a second Indochina war.

→ 20 contemporary history worksheets (1945–2017)

8 thoughts on “III. A. The causes and first signs of decolonization

  1. It seems to me that it is a revolution and not a resolution concerning Quit India ;). The rest is well done I think, thank you!

  2. @Alicia: Hello Alicia, unfortunately this feature is not yet under study. You can perhaps try to save the web page in pdf using your browser, but it is true that the quality may not be up to par. We hope that you will still be able to make the most of these free access sheets, and wish you a good day, The Academics in Politics team.

  3. Hello, is it possible to download your articles in pdf? I wish I could read them on my Kindle. Alicia

  4. Good evening, there is an error I believe that the independence of Burma is January 4, 1948

  5. Should we develop the Indochina War, or is a brief summary sufficient?

  6. @loupette: yes she is there, like everything that happens in the world after 1945

  7. Hello, is decolonization on the program of the 1st Year of Sciences-Po provinces competition? THANKS

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